The total PSA (prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific antigen) value in serum of normal people is <4.0ng/ml; if >10.0ng/ml, the probability of prostate cancer is very high. Between 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml for BPH (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy, BPH) and prostatitis when PSA will be high.
When the total PSA is between 4.0-10.0ng/ml, free PSA can help predict the possibility of prostate cancer. When free-psa > is 25%, it indicates that the possibility of cancer is small. The smaller the proportion of free-psa is, the more likely it is to be prostate cancer. The ratio helps doctors make treatment choices and reduces unnecessary biopsies (such as punctures). Recent studies have shown that free-PSA< 14% indicates a high degree of malignancy. Not all prostate cancers have elevated PSA.
Quantitative blood PSA testing is used to screen and monitor prostate cancer. It is recommended that men over 45 should be tested once a year. It's used to help diagnose prostate cancer, to guide the treatment of prostate cancer patients.
PSA is produced by synthesis of prostate cells and is an excellent marker of prostate cancer. PSA exists in the form of free and binding to other serum proteins in the blood. PSA can be elevated in men with prostatitis, prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer. The ratio of free PSA to total PSA in blood can help to distinguish prostate cancer from other non-cancerous diseases. It can help predict whether prostate cancer is aggressive and growing rapidly.
Generally, the total PSA is used for screening. When the total PSA is only slightly elevated, the free PSA is supplemented and the ratio of the two is calculated for differential diagnosis.
PSA test is very important for prostate cancer patients. Continuous PSA increase after surgical resection or treatment often indicates residual cancer or recurrence. PSA test can be combined with digital rectal examination and ultrasonic diagnosis, but the accuracy of PSA is higher than the other two.
In the current tumor marker test program, PSA is recognized as the best one, but not all prostate cancer will be high, because in all prostate cancer, there are at least 5 or more according to pathology, among which at least two pathological types do not secrete PSA.
In general, elevated serum PSA to earlier than other diagnosis, including impact study. If high PSA was born, also is not necessarily a prostate cancer should be regular repetition, repetition interval is determined by the PSA half-life (repetition interval please know, thank you), that is to say, dynamic observation. In addition, should do B to exceed, calculating the ratio of PSA and the size of the prostate, sometimes, even if the PSA is not high, if the ratio of PSA and prostate size increased or reduced to the problem, also want to dynamic observation.
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